The tradition of rice cultivation spans several millennia, a multitude of cultures and diverse ecogeographic regions from Iran, across the Indian subcontinent, to East and Southeast Asia. Ann Bot. Asian rice was first domesticated from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon in China between 8,200 and 13,500 years ago, then spread to South and Southeast Asia. In all cases, 5. which has strong resistance to … 1964 - China started hybrid rice research ... grow indica/javanica hybrids in indica rice growing region. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. This species is grown in West Africa. long grain rice … The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. US Gulf rice . The complex history of the domestication of rice. Mol Phylogenet Evol. Initially, it was defined at a separate variety to Japonica although it is now classed as part of the genus. Origin and diffusion of rice are still unsettled issues (Huke and Huke, 1990). Flag leaf angle 3 (see Fig. The diversity test showed that, on average, the japonica (samples with A4 allele) exhibited a much lower diversity (π = 0.0002) than other cultivated rice groups (π = 0.0006 for indica, π = 0.0011 for javanica) and wild rice (π = 0.0014; SI Appendix, Table S2). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239085. iii) Javanica. Petit J, Bourgeois E, Stenger W, BÃ¨s M, Droc G, Meynard D, Courtois B, GhesquiÃ¨re A, Sabot F, Panaud O, Guiderdoni E. Mol Genet Genomics. eCollection 2020. Javanica rice (tropical japonica) mainly distributes in tropical mountains of Indonesia, Malay Peninsula, the Philippines, e.g. Epub 2009 Oct 25. It also exhibits better resistance to various pests and diseases, such as nematodes, midges, viruses and the parasitic plants Striga. | Asian cultivated rice originated in the region from south China to the Ganges in South and Southeast Asia, including the river valleys and deltas of the Brahmaputra of northern India, the Irrawaddy of Burma, the Mekong of Vietnam, and the Yangtze of China. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Terminology for Javanica or tropical Japonica type In addition to Indica and Japonica types, another term 'javanica type' or 'tropical Japonica type' has been introduced. Cultivated Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the oldest and most important staple crops worldwide.It is well established that O. sativa originated from a wild progenitor species Oryza rufipogon Griff., although the number of domestication events and the nature of the evolutionary processes that gave rise to the modern crop remain controversial [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. Front Plant Sci. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Discovered in the 1960s, Meloidogyne graminicola is a root‐knot nematode species considered as a major threat to rice production. The Oryza genus is thought to have originated about 14 million years ago in what is now SouthEast Asia and the Philippines. Length 9. Asian cultivated rice could be divided into three subspecies, i.e. Indonesia is forced to import nearly one million tons of rice every year. origin of cultivated rice (issn book 14) 1, oka, h. -i find all the books, read about the author, and more. HHS These other Oryza species should not be confused with another plant which is also called wild rice, which is actually from the genus Zizonia. Roy S, Marndi BC, Mawkhlieng B, Banerjee A, Yadav RM, Misra AK, Bansal KC. Just two species have no close relatives and are placed in their own sections of the genus: O. australiensis and O. brachyantha. One was thought to be in the tropical regions of South Asia where indica rice varieties dominated and the other near Central China where japonica rice dominated ( Londo et al., 2006 ; Vaughan et al., 2008 ). O. glaberrima shows several characteristics that make it less suitable for cultivation compared to O. sativa, such as brittle grains and poor milling quality. The grains are long to short, slender, somewhat flat, tend to shatter more easily and have high amylose content, making them drier and flakier when cooked than japonica varieties. The raw grains are slightly glassy and translucent. Javanica plants are tall with broad, stiff, light green leaves. Scientists from the Africa Rice Center managed to cross-breed African rice with Asian rice varieties to produce a rice variety called NERICA, which is an acronym for New Rice for Africa. Wajid-Khan M, Khan MR, Khan AA, 1984. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. Report of a mission (3 to 10 February, 1972). The plant is originally from the southern Himalayas, where favorable conditions exist for this crop and where thousands of wild varieties existed. Rice production doubled between 1966 and 1990 due to large scale adoption of these improved varieties. Recent findings suggest that although Asian cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa) is comprised of several genetically distinct groups, a number of the alleles responsible for key domestication and grain quality traits are shared among these groups. Injury by Meloidogyne javanica to dry-land rice in the Comoro Islands. Both are cultivated plant species, which means they have developed as a result of humans growing them over many centuries, selecting the traits they consider the most important (e.g. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the oldest and globally most important staple crops. The views regarding the origin of rice can be grouped in to two classes viz., a) Polyphyletic origin b) Monophyletic origin. Two Oryza species are important cereals for human nutrition: Oryza sativa (Asian rice), grown worldwide, and Oryza glaberrima (African rice), grown in parts of West Africa. Seedling height LEAF (below the flag leaf) 8. 2009 Dec;282(6):633-52. doi: 10.1007/s00438-009-0493-z. It is a relatively short plant with narrow, dark green leaves and medium-height tillers. The origin of Thai rice. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Japonica Rice Japonica variety, a staple of the Japanese diet is distinguished by its shorter and plumper appearance. 2020 Nov 10;9(11):1531. doi: 10.3390/plants9111531. When the water has all been absorbed, the temperature can rise above boiling point, which trips the thermostat. Two major subgroups of rice, indica and japonica, led rice genetic resource specialists to conclude that there were two centers of origin. Japonica rice (O. sativa subsp. sativa) had its origin on the South Asia plate, which now includes the Indian subcontinent, the northern slopes of the Himalaya range inside China, Mainland Southeast Asia, and some of the major islands in Southeast Asia. iii) Javanica. 1926 - Heterosis in rice reported . According to this theory, the two forms of cultivated rice viz., Asian rice O.sativa and African rice O.glaberrima have evolved Epub 2018 May 16. 13. Cheon KS, Jeong YM, Oh H, Oh J, Kang DY, Kim N, Lee E, Baek J, Kim SL, Choi I, Yoon IS, Kim KH, Won YJ, Cho YI, Han JH, Ji H. Plants (Basel). Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. Indica rice is the major type of rice grown in the tropics and subtropics, including the Philippines, India, Pakistan, Java, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, central and southern China, and in some African countries. NLM eCollection 2020. The grains are long, broad, and thick, do not shatter easily, and have low amylose content. 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